Contents

4.1 Introduction

This section describes the disease syndromes of cattle, sheep and goats, that may be observed between arrival at the assembly feedlot and destination port.

A syndrome is a common set of signs that may be displayed by animals suffering from one or more conditions. When animals present with a syndrome, the animal could be suffering from one or more of the specific conditions that may be associated with that syndrome.

Lists of the major syndromes and their differential diagnoses are presented in alphabetical order in Tables 4.1 (sheep and goats) and 4.2 (cattle). The individual descriptions of the diseases and conditions then proceed in alphabetical order, providing information on definition, pathogenesis, incidence, risk factors, clinical and necropsy diagnosis, differential diagnoses, treatment and prevention.

An awareness of the differential diagnoses that may be associated with a syndrome is important. It reduces the likelihood of misdiagnosis which is important for diagnosing or excluding exotic and emergency diseases. It also increases the likelihood of reaching the correct diagnosis which leads to selection of effective treatment and preventive measures to prevent recurrence of disease.

A large number of diseases and conditions are mentioned including some that are rarely seen. Less common conditions are included for completeness, because they are differential diagnoses for syndromes that have other more common causes and to help users make accurate diagnoses for insurance, disease reporting and exotic disease exclusion purposes.

The major conditions that can cause increased mortality and that have triggered disease investigations in the past are underlined in each table: salmonellosis, inanition, heat stress, pneumonia and trauma in sheep, and respiratory disease or pneumonia, heat stress and trauma in cattle.

With regard to drug treatments, dosages, intervals and duration of treatments are not specified. This information should be obtained from product information that must accompany all drugs. In addition the MLA publication on Best practice use of veterinary drugs[3] provides withholding periods and broad advice on choosing and using veterinary drugs.

Table 4.1: Clinical syndromes of sheep and goats, and specific diseases

SyndromeSpecific disease topics in Handbook
Abdominal distension

Abdominal distension

Abdominal hernia

Bloat

Gastrointestinal obstruction

Pregnancy - advanced

Urinary tract obstruction

Colic (abdominal pain)

Abdominal distension

Diarrhoea

Enterotoxaemia

Peritonitis

Rumen acidosis

Urinary tract obstruction

Diarrhoea

Coccidiosis

Copper deficiency

Enterotoxaemia

Gastrointestinal parasitism

Indigestion

Rumen acidosis

Salmonellosis

Eye disease

Eye discharge

Eye foreign body

Pinkeye

Illthrift

Bulling

Caseous lymphadenitis (Cheesy gland)

Gastrointestinal parasitism

Illthrift

Inappetence / inanition*

Johne's disease

Ketosis

Abscess

Malnutrition

Monensin poisoning

Salmonellosis*

Shy feeders

Lameness

Arthritis

Bulling

Foot abscess

Footrot

Knuckling

Lacerations

Lameness

Laminitis

Nutritional myopathy

Overgrown hooves

Sole bruising

Swollen legs

Traumatic injuries*

Nasal discharge

Nasal bots

Nasal discharge

Oesophageal obstruction

Pneumonia*

Respiratory distress

Nervous disease

Annual ryegrass toxicity

Copper deficiency

Downer

Enterotoxaemia

Hepatic encephalopathy

Hypocalcaemia

Ketosis

Listeriosis

Middle ear abscess

Meningitis

Nitrate - nitrite poisoning

Poisoning

Polioencephalomalacia

Salt poisoning

Spinal cord injury

Transit tetany

Respiratory distress

Asphyxiation

Heat stress*

Pneumonia*

Respiratory distress

Skin lesions

Abdominal hernia

Abscess

Actinobacillosis

Alopecia

Dermatophilus

Fleece rot

Flystrike

Itch mite

Lacerations

Lice

Photosensitisation

Pizzle rot

Ringworm

Scabby mouth

Skin swellings

Squamous cell carcinoma

Warts

Sudden death

Acidosis

Annual ryegrass toxicity

Asphyxiation

Blackleg / malignant oedema

Bloat

Copper poisoning

Cyanide poisoning

Electrocution

Enterotoxaemia

Hypocalcaemia

Lupinosis

Nitrate - nitrite poisoning

Pneumonia*

Polioencephalomalacia

Rumen acidosis

Salmonellosis

Smothering

Sudden death

Straining

Coccidiosis

Constipation

Gastrointestinal obstruction

Pizzle rot

Prolapse of the rectum

Prolapse of the uterus

Prolapse of the vagina

Urinary tract obstruction

Swellings on the body and limbs

Abdominal hernia

Arthritis

Blackleg

Bloat

Caseous lymphadenitis

Haematoma - cutaneous

Mastitis

Pizzle rot

Prolapse of the rectum

Prolapse of the vagina

Urinary tract obstruction/rupture

Swelling of the head and neck

Abscess

Actinobacillosis

Big Head

Bluetongue

Bottle jaw

Goiter

Iodine deficiency

Retained cud

* Major conditions that can cause increased mortality

Table 4.2: Clinical syndromes of cattle and their specific diseases

SyndromeSpecific disease sections in Handbook
Abdominal distension

Abdominal distension

Abdominal hernia

Abomasal displacement

Bloat

Gastrointestinal obstruction

Oesophageal obstruction

Pregnancy - advanced

Vagus indigestion

Diarrhoea

Acidosis

Bovine virus diarrhoea (Pestivirus)

Coccidiosis

Copper deficiency

Diarrhoea

Gastrointestinal parasitism

Indigestion

Monensin poisoning

Rumen acidosis

Salmonellosis

Downer

Asphyxiation

Decubital ulcers

Downer

Ephemeral fever

Exhaustion

Footrot

Monensin poisoning

Sole bruising

Spinal cord injury

Swollen legs

Traumatic injuries*

Eye disease

Eye cancer

Eye discharge

Eye foreign body

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

Malignant catarrhal fever

Pinkeye

Illthrift

Abomasal displacement

Abomasal ulcer

Actinobacillosis

Heart failure

Inappetence

Illthrift

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Malnutrition

Monensin poisoning

Shy feeders

Tick fever

Vagus indigestion

Knuckling

Asphyxiation

Bulling

Downer

Gastrocnemius rupture

Ketosis

Knuckling

Nervous disease

Spinal cord injury

Transit tetany

Traumatic injuries*

Lameness

Arthritis

Bulling

Foot abscess

Footrot

Gastrocnemius rupture

Haematoma - cutaneous

Lacerations

Lameness

Laminitis

Mastitis

Nutritional myopathy

Overgrown hooves

Sole bruising

Swollen legs

Traumatic injuries*

Nasal discharge

Bovine virus diarrhoea (Pestivirus)

Gastrointestinal obstruction

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

Malignant catarrhal fever

Nasal discharge

Oesophageal obstruction

Pneumonia*

Nervous disease

Acidosis

Annual ryegrass toxicity

Copper deficiency

Enterotoxaemia

Hepatic encephalopathy

Hypocalcaemia

Ketosis

Listeriosis

Meningitis

Middle ear abscess

Nervous disease

Nitrate - nitrite poisoning

Poisoning

Polioencephalomalacia

Salt poisoning

Transit tetany

Respiratory distress

Asphyxiation

Bloat

Exhaustion

Heart failure

Heat stress*

Pneumonia - Cattle*

Pneumonia - Embolic*

Poisoning

Respiratory distress

Skin lesions

Alopecia

Decubital ulcers

Dermatophilosis

Haematoma - cutaneous

Lacerations

Lice

Photosensitisation

Pseudolumpy skin disease

Ringworm

Skin swellings

Squamous cell carcinoma

Stephanofilariasis

Warts

Straining

Abortion

Coccidiosis

Constipation

Diarrhoea

Metritis

Pregnancy - advanced

Prolapse of the rectum

Prolapse of the uterus

Prolapse of the vagina

Retained foetal membranes

Urinary tract obstruction

Sudden death

Abomasal ulcer

Acidosis

Annual ryegrass toxicity

Asphyxiation

Blackleg / malignant oedema

Bloat

Copper poisoning

Cyanide poisoning

Electrocution

Enterotoxaemia

Heart failure - congestive

Heat stress*

Lupinosis

Monensin poisoning

Nitrate - nitrite poisoning

Pneumonia - embolic

Poisoning

Polioencephalomalacia

Rumen acidosis

Salt poisoning

Sudden death

Traumatic reticulopericarditis

Swellings on the body and limbs

Abdominal hernia

Abscess

Blackleg

Bloat

Decubital ulcers

Haematoma - cutaneous

Heart failure - congestive

Mastitis

Prolapse of the rectum

Prolapse of the vagina

Urinary tract obstruction/rupture

Swelling of the head and neck

Abscess

Actinobacillosis

Bluetongue

Bottle jaw

Goiter

Lumpy jaw

Retained cud

Salivary duct blockage

Woody tongue

* Major conditions that can cause increased mortality

3. Best practice use of veterinary drugs, Meat and Livestock Australia Ltd, 2008