6.1 Introduction

This section outlines a risk-based approach to managing the provision of drinking water to sheep, goats and cattle in the live export process. The emphasis here is management at sea but many of the principles apply to land-based animal facilities. Like the section on How to manage feed problems, it complements and should be read in conjunction with the Australian Standards for Export of Livestock (ASEL) which sets the minimum requirements for supply of water to exported livestock.

A plentiful supply of clean water is necessary for optimal health. The consequences of this not occurring range from reduced feed intake and non achievement of desired weigh gains to deaths from dehydration and heatstroke.

Watering problems fall into three categories of (1) adaptation, (2) quality and (3) supply problems, similar to the problem categories associated with feeding.