12.4 Scientific Articles

Baeta F, Meador NF, Shankin MD and Johnson HD. Equivalent temperature index at temperatures above the thermoneutral for lactating dairy cows, (1987). Proceedings of the Summer Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Gaughan JB, Mader TL, Holt SM and Lisle A. A new head load index for feedlot cattle, (2008). Journal of Animal Science 86:226-234. Describes the research leading to the development of the Heat Load Index (HLI).

Norris RT, Richards RB, Creeper JH, Jubb TF, Madin B and Kerr JW. Cattle deaths during sea transport from Australia, (2003) Australian Veterinary Journal 81:156-161. Describes the causes of death in cattle during four long haul sea voyages and provides industry statistics on mortality rates.

Phillips CJC. The Welfare of livestock During Sea Transport. (2008) In Appleby, M. (Ed.), Long Distance Transport and Welfare of Farm Animals (pp. 137-156) UK: CAB International. Covers the common methods of transporting animals by sea and the stressors that may affect their health and welfare.